Key Findings

►Limited monitoring and verification of human rights in the supply chain remains a risk, especially with COVID-19 limitations.

►The NDPE Implementation Reporting Framework is being widely used, but reporting is often inconsistent or not transparent.

►Despite widespread adoption of cut-off dates, the focus for these companies is on active monitoring, rather than historic deforestation, resulting in a question of the utility of these dates in practice.

►Understanding of climate risks is generally limited, although some traders – especially growers – are beginning to consider risks.

►RSPO uptake has increased substantially, although the increase is limited to certain regions and sectors.

►NDPE policy uptake is growing, and this has had benefits on the ground in terms of declining deforestation.